The Moral Ambiguity of America.
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis
The horrific attacks waged against the two peaceful, and vulnerable communities in the United States (U.S.) first occurred at the Oklahoma Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City on April 1995. The second occurred six years later in New York City; 11 September 2001 (usually abbreviated to “9/11”). These crimes – for whatever purpose – were outrageous, and horrific unconscionable acts at their worst. They were depraved, and iniquitous crimes by an hostes humani generis (an enemy of humanity), and unjustifiable, in any religiopolitical perspective.
The Oklahoma attack resulted in the loss of 168 lives including nineteen children, and eight federal law enforcement officers. The preliminary vital statistics ensuing from the New York attack constituted a total of 2,726 deaths (sec. the N.Y.C.D.H.M.H. qu., 16 August 2002). News of these attacks saturated the U.S’s print and broadcast media, thus attracting the global condemnation of the perpetrators, as well as sympathy for the victims and their relatives. The actual machinations, as to the whom, behind this attack, is in my opinion, yet to become public information. The truth must eventually emerge out of respect for the lives lost; and integrity to the historical record. In the Oklahoma jurisdiction, two former U.S. Army soldiers carried out the attack using a massive homemade explosive911 device. Those Charged were Timothy McVeigh, who was convicted, on 11 counts of ‘murder’, ‘conspiracy’, and ‘using a weapon of mass destruction’ (2 June 1997). He was executed on 11 June 2001. And Terry Nichols, also convicted, of ‘conspiracy’ and eight counts of ‘involuntary manslaughter’ (9 August 2004) was sentenced to life in prison.
The Oklahoma attack was similar, to New York, inasmuch as it targeted an innocent civilian population. It was a high-profile attack, by an internal group, against the U.S. federal government, and the crème de la crème of the corporate community. Perhaps motivated by ideologies of a political extreme right-wing militant patriot organization. This appeared to be a form of ‘urban terrorism’, id est., McVeigh and Nichols (et alii.), targeted a federal building in their particular region, perhaps attacking the social system, they believed, wasn’t accommodating their political and socio-economic expectations. Although they appeared unconnected with any major political group, they held views, to whatever extent, characteristic of the broad Patriot movement, perhaps with trepidation regarding left-centrists gaining power in Washington.
“We must try to find ways to starve the terrorist and the hijacker of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend”.
Margaret Thatcher, ‘The Times’, 16 July, 1983.
Terroristic activities, could very probably culminate in an antagonistic outcome, by means of a government introducing draconic repressive measures, that could impact on the many. A classic example of this, was on the 27 February, 1933 when the 24-year old naked, Dutch insurrectionist (Marinus van der Lubbe), who was 70% visually impaired at his left eye, set alight the 39-year old Reichstagsgebäude. The ‘Reichstag building’ in Berlin had been the seat of the German Empire (1871-1918), and the Weimar Republic (1919-33). The building was completely destroyed. This event provided the newly formed Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterparte ‘National Socialist German Workers Party’ q.e. the ‘Nazi party’. the opportunity to introduce totalitarian decrees that would foreshadow the worst crimes in history. Under the Nazi controlled judiciary, particularly subsequent to the Enabling Act (Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich (Law to Remedy the Distress of People and Reich) introduced on 23 March, 1933, Lubbe was declared guilty, and sentensed to death. He was guillotined (Fallbeil “falling axe”) 10 January, 1934. On the 6 December, 2007 the Generalbundesanwältin (Attorney General of Germany) posthumously pardoned him.
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis
Discussion regarding the ‘call’ (or ‘summons’) ought to include ‘imagination’. For convenience sake, and clarity, this term will be defined as a summons, from God or a bishop, to perform a particular task. Moreover, ‘imagination’ will be defined as a vehicular faculty of supernatural revelations or futuristic visions. The qualifier ‘anticipatory’ will be appended to vision thus: ‘anticipatory vision’, to avoid any misunderstanding. To prevent confusion with the creative imagination of writers and reproductive imagination in retrospective surveys of past experiences.
The ‘Call’ in The Tenach and The New Testament.
There are two meanings in the Tenach. Firstly, invitations from God to Abraham (Gen.12), Moses (Ex.3), Isaiah (6:8), Jeremiah (1:2). Moreover, Ezekiel (1:1), and Hosea (1:2) to engage in His philanthropic plans for mankind. For example Amos, a herdsman, a pincher of sycamore fruit. Amos was ‘called’, somewhere between 760 and 745 BC., to address the wanting socio-economic, religiopolitical, and moral conditions of the day. Moreover, perhaps inadvertently initiated a new period in the Hebrew prophetic tradition.
Καὶ ἀνέλαβέν με κύριος ἐκ τῶν προβάτων, καὶ εἶπεν κύριος πρός με Βάδιζε προφήτευσον ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν μου Ισραηλ.
Αμος, 7:15. LXX.
Then the Lord took me as I followed the flock, And the Lord said to me, Go, prophesy to My people Israel’.
Amos, 7:15 NKJV.
Secondly, man’s ‘call’ to God during times of danger, conflict et cetera, for example:
“πᾶσαν χῆραν καὶ ὀρφανὸν οὐ κακώσετε ἐὰν δὲ κακίᾳ κακώσητε αὐτοὺς καὶ κεκράξαντες καταβοήσωσι πρός με, ἀκοῇ εἰσακούσομαι τῇς φωνῇς αὐτῶν”.
Εξοδος, xxii:21,22. LXX.
“You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. If you afflict them in any way, and they cry at all to Me, I will surely hear their cry”.
Exodus, xxii:22,23 NKJV.
Furthermore, in the New Testament, Jesus’ ‘call’ to His first Disciples: Peter, Andrew, James, John, at the sea of Galilee; and Paul on the Damascus road; in the 1st-century.
Περιπατῶν δὲ παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἶδεν δύο ἀδελφούς, Σίμωνα τὸν λεγόμενον Πέτρον καὶ ̓Ανδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, βάλλοντας ἀμφίβληστρον εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν ἦσαν γὰρ ἁλιεῖς. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καὶ ποιήσω ὑμᾶς ἁλιεῖς ἀνθρώπων. οἱ δὲ εὐθέως ἀφέντες τὰ δίκτυα ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ. Καὶ προβὰς ἐκεῖθεν εἶδεν ἄλλους δύο ἀδελφούς ̓Ιάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καὶ ̓Ιωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ μετὰ Ζεβεδαίου τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτῶν καταρτίζοντας τα δίκτυα αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς δὲ εὐθέως ἀφέντες τὸ πλοῖον καὶ τὸν πατέρα αὐτῶν ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ.
Μαθθαῖος, iv:18-22. GNT.
Now Jesus, walking by the Sea of Galilee, saw two brothers, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen. And He said to them, “Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of men.” Then they immediately left their nets and followed Him. And going on from there, He saw two other brothers, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in the boat with Zebedee their father, mending their nets. And He called them, and immediately they left the boat and their father, and followed Him.
Matt. iv:18-22 NKJV.
Ἐν δὲ τῷ πορεύεσθαι ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐγγίζειν τῇ Δαμασκῷ, ἐξαίφνης τε αὐτὸν περιήστραψεν Φῶς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἤκουσεν φωνὴν λέγουσαν αὐτῷ, Σαοὺλ Σαοὺλ, τί με διώκεις; εἶπεν δέ, Τίς εἶ, κύριε; ὁ δέ, Ἐγώ εἰμι Ἱησοῦς ὅν σὺ διώκεις ἀλλὰ ἀνάστηθι καὶ εἴσελθε εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ λαληθήσεταί σοι ὅ τί σε δεῖ ποιεῖν.
Πραξεις, ix:3-6. GNT.
And as he journeyed he came near Damascus, and suddenly a light shone around him from heaven. Then he fell to the ground, and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?” And he said, Who are You, Lord?” And the Lord said, “I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. It is hard for you to kick against the goads.” So he, trembling and astonished, said “Lord, what do You want me to do?” And the Lord said to him, “Arise and go into the city, and you will be told what you must do.”
Acts, 9:3-6 NKJV.
For an example of the anticipatory imagination, subsequent to the Pauline experience on the Damascus road in Syria, 14-centuries later; in France.
Jeanne d’Arc’s ‘Imagination’ and ‘Voices’.
Jeanne d’Arc, ‘La Pucelle’, is admired as a French patriot, a great National heroine. Jeanne believed she was inspired by divine guidance. She received her ‘call’ at Domrémy, Champagne circa 1425. Jeanne is a remarkable case in point who was quite conscious of her ‘call’. Moreover, able to identify her ‘voices’ as those of Saints Michael, Katherine, Margaret, and others. Also, the ‘call’ for her mission to ‘save France, from the British occupation, and crown the Dauphin; Charles VII’.
The eventual deliverance of Orléans in April-May, 1429, and coronation of the Dauphin on the 17 July did virtually saved France. Jeanne was canonized, 489-years later, as a holy maiden, in the Christian West by Pope Benedict XV; on 9 May 1920. Jeanne’s mission, although controversial and inconclusive among psychological and historical theorists, does however, appear to have demonstrated a reality-based outcome of the influence of the ‘call’ through the cognitive anticipatory imaginative processes of the human psyche.
A Biochemical and Neurological Framework.
The ‘call’ could be conceptualized in a reductionist and elemental schema, as this would have the effect of reducing cognitive activities to afferent neural pathways, which would exclude the metaphysical. Subsequently, omitting the supernatural, and diminishing the dignity and integrity of the human constructs of both demonstrable, and subjective ‘reality’; underlying the phenomenon of being. The importance of the biochemical and neurological influences underlying human (and animal) behavior, must be acknowledged. Notwithstanding the importance of these rationales (or synthesis), towards a satisfactory understanding of psychological phenomena is, as I understand it, incomprehensible. The identifiable structure, where these processes supposedly occur are through the activities of post-synaptic neurons (in the current scientific brain lateralization theory) in the parietal and occipital lobes of the right side hemisphere. Mediating this structure, particularly its abstractions of psychic representations in a psycho neural schema would require some very fanciful hypotheses. Perhaps the anticipatory imagination and ‘call’ could be considered in a Kantian type framework. That is to say, conceptualizing the commonalities between the properties. That is to say, ‘anticipatory imagination’ and the ‘call,’ in a holistic and interactionist schema within a set-theoretical model. With the reciprocal influences of these properties for evaluation. This, however, would be an ineffectual exercise if a verifiable logical conclusion were to be sought.
With the wisdom of hindsight, perhaps with retrospective falsification, or even editorialization, one might question the impulse. motivating the ‘call,’ or vice versa, suggesting it may have been an Adlerian, or Freudian counterbalancing towards bringing to others what one may have lacked in their formative years, or defense to suppress any supposed psychological anomalies from surfacing to consciousness. Others may perceive themselves as ambiguous functionaries, doubtful as to whether or not a decision, either way, could be logically validated due to the principles of verification dealing solely with cognitive processes. Another view might suggest that the abstract concept (the mind) cannot refer to the ‘call’, or any other private and subjective experience, independent of the phenomenal, unless one leaps into the realm of faith.
” ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, Τὰ ἀδύνατα παρὰ ἀνθρώποιςδυνατὰ παρὰ τῷ θεῷ ἐστιν.
(Λούκιος, xviii:27b. Greek New Testament)
“The things which are impossible with men are possible with God”.
(Luke, xviii:27b. NKJV).
~ Finis ~
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis
Recently some opinions were published on this website that were censored by an inappreciable number of zealous advocates of ‘Political Correctness’. For alleged ‘derogatory’ comments of ‘persons,’ ‘country,’ and ‘religious affiliations’. The opinions in question appeared in two articles titled: ‘Father’s Views on the Imperialist Realpolitik in Iraq’, and the “Jehovah’s Witnesses”.
The views, expressed in the article on the war in Iraq, were formed from information extrapolated from media reports. Moreover, the views on the ‘Jehovah’s Witnesses’ were based, for the most part, upon quotations from their publications. Also, passages from the Patristic sources. In these situations, the information is on the public record, privileged communication and are, the basis for rational criticism of public figures. Their activities and ideologies in an acceptable, and legitimate form of discourse.
‘Political Correctness’ is reminiscent of the intellectual inactivity of the Dark Ages in Western European history (476-800). Since the middle of last century, there has been an increasing radical retrocession, of the collective western mindset. That had its genesis during the apparent rapid diminishing of western culture to mass mediocrity. Driven by commercial interests, in marketing goods and services, though the principal media organizations in New York and Los Angeles.
During the decade of the second Indochina War (1965-1975), there arose the counter-culture, and the countermovements for nonconformity, and the separatists movements. Namely ‘black power,’ later to be followed by women’s “liberation,” ‘Movement for the Ordination of Women,’ and ‘homosexual (“gay”) liberation’. There also arose the cults and sects that had the effects of interpolating Western culture with a variety of selected palatable elements. These elements were extrapolated from the exotic polytheistic cluster of Hinduism including (Sanãtana Dharma) from the Indian subcontinent. And from some of the eastern ethical movements (Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism) from China, Tibet et al. And the re-emergence of pre-scientific, superstitious, or irrational, concepts and practises, v.g., shamanism, witchcraft, astrology et cetera. These and other equivocal assumptions and practises have been given the preferential and incautious treatment. Rather than the scientific orthodox western disciplines; e.g., Psychology, medicine, social science et cetera.
Incarceration of Free Speech.
‘Political Correctness’ (or the ‘Frankfurter Schule’) migrated from Germany to the United States in 1935. From where it gradually gained mass public acceptance into the Western mindset without question. ‘Political Correctness’ is a surreptitious scheme of thought control that disallows open discussion under the Pollyanna pretext of multiculturalism. Multiculturalism asserts an equitableness of the various cultural units in the mainstream population of a host nation. All views and opinions that transgress the intolerant and repressive tripartite-edict of Political Correctness are vilified for being xenophobic, homophobic or misogynist. This threefold stratagem conceals the stark reality of the inequality of the various ethnic group’s inclusion and participation in the political and economic decision-making processes and shares in the nation’s wealth. Additionally, it has an ossific effect on the politically configurated collective mindset, and maintenance of the cultural, and the socio-economic status quo.
Arguments for censoring opinions, in these articles, is untenable. Firstly, due to the essential ‘manners’ – occasionally employing ‘assertive styles’ – necessary for writers, to convey precise thoughts on ‘matters’ in question. Moreover, secondly, but more importantly, the supposed democratic right “…to freedom of opinions and expressions … without interference”, guaranteed, at least in theory, under the First Amendment of the United States’ Constitution.
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances”.
Article V ratified 17/9/1787, and subsequent additional Articles/amendments (Article )); ratified between 20/11/1789 and 19/4/1939.
‘The Right to Freedom of Opinions and Expressions’.
‘Political Correctness’ is a dangerous anti-democratic assault against the most quintessential aspect of the human faculty of thought and freedom of expression.
“The free communication of ideas and of opinions is one of the most precious rights of man. Any citizen may therefore speak, write and publish freely, except what is tantamount to the abuse of this liberty in cases determined by Law”.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Article II). National Assembly of France 1789, and formalized in the Constitution of 1958.
Writers of articles on this website have “the right to freedom of opinions and expressions,” and will continue to “hold opinions without interference,” notwithstanding the zealous watchdogs of ‘Political Correctness’. Moreover, in conclusion, it is hoped that visitors to this website, make fair and unbiased assessments of the site contents. Free from the sense of judgment being eclipsed by the repressive effects of ‘Political Correctness’.
~ Finis ~
The Tarot Archetypes in Poetry and Prose.
Separating Common Sense from Nonsense.
There has been a rekindled interest in the Tarot cards with the re-emergence of the so-called ‘new age movement’. Since the 1800s, a small group of writers has made unsubstantiated claims regarding the Tarot having their origins in ancient Egypt or China. Moreover, fanciful pseudo-mystical assumptions about their supposed relationship with esoteric activities; astrology, numerology, ceremonial magic and the Cabbala. There is no hard evidence supporting the Tarot predating the 14-Century, nor their use for anything other than games prior to the 18-Century. This brief article will endeavour to outline two of the Major Arcana. ‘The Wheel of Fortune’ and ‘The Devil’, with emphasis on an umbrella perspective of poetry and prose.
La Roue de Fortune X Arcanes Majeurs.
The Wheel is an important feature in the world’s great religious traditions. In Hinduism (or more correctly ‘ Sanatana Dharma’), Shiva’s dance of the wheel of fire. Buddhism, the discourse, of the Buddha, set in the ‘Wheel of the Law’ (‘dharma-chakra’). Judaism, the wheel is at first an ornamental feature of Yahweh’s throne (Ezek,1:4-28;10). And then the wheels of the throne (Dan.7:9), and later become Ophannin; one of the guards of the celestial throne (Enoch. 61:10,71:7).
In Christian text ‘τὸν τροχὸν τῆς γενέσεως’ (‘wheel of life’), translates as the ‘course of nature’ NKJV, the ‘course of life’ NASB. Moreover, the ‘cycle of nature’ RSV; see James 3:6. This phrase has no association with the beliefs of the cult of Orpheus, and putting any meaning to this phrase would be pure conjecture. Quite clearly, these OT and NT phrases have the character of theological ornamentation, and comment regarding sociological variables of human life respectively.
The basic belief shared by both Hinduism and Buddhism is that of metempsychosis. That is to say, all men are shackled to the ‘wheel of life’. Moreover, their souls migrate from one body to another until all ‘karma’ (‘the accumulated actions of a person’s previous states of existence’) is expended. Metempsychosis, although reawakened by the spread of the pantheistic, immaneistic movements of Spiritualism and Theosophy, is fundamentally at variance with Christian doctrine, especially regarding the ‘resurrection of the body’.
The Theme of the Wheel in Literature.
This archetype is conceptualized as limits to human aspirations as to the “point … to which men aspire”, with fatalistic acceptance of both the individual and collective fall.
“Base Fortune, now I see, that in thy wheel There is a point, to which when men aspire, They tumble headlong down: that point I touched, And, seeing there was no place to mount up higher, Why should I grieve at my declining fall?”
Christopher Marlowe, Edward II, act.v,sc.vi.
The following poem features the wheel motif, with dramatic flair, as a collective (societal) and cosmic archetype. Its motion is effected by both the movement of the ‘celestial spheres’, and unscrupulous, and domineering ‘Fate’.
Since all the world’s great fortune and affairs
Forward and backward rapt and whirled are,
According to the music of the spheres; And
Chance herself her nimble feet upbears
On around slippery wheel, that rolleth aye.
And turns all states with her imperious sway;
Learn then to dance, you that are princes born,
And lawful lords of earthly creatures all;
Imitate them, and thereof take no scorn,
(For this new art to them is natural)
And imitate the stars celestial.
For when pale death your vital twist shall sever,
Your better parts must dance with them forever.
Sir John Davies, ‘Orchestra, or a Poem of Dancing, st.lx.
The wheel motif in the Dhammapada is the recurring cycle of individual existence.
Caught in the round of existence, without rest, without break, for many births, I sought for the Builder and took miserable birth again and again.
Dhammapada, Old Age, 8. dGe-‘dun Chos-‘phel. (transl.).
In the following poem, the wheel is a fickle and merciless revolving influence on life which man is cognizant both subjectively and objectively, of his role as pawn to “Her cruel sports, to many men’s decay?”
What man that see the ever-whirling wheel Of Change, the which all mortal things doth sway, But that thereby doth find, and plainly feel, How Mutability in them doth play. Her cruel sports, tomany men’s decay?
Edmund Spencer, The Faerie Queen, bk.vii,can.vi,st.i.
Le Diable XV Arcanes Majeurs.
This image features an androgynous half human, half animal, demonic figure accompanied by two humans with tails, antlers and animal ears. These two figures are attached to the plateau on which the demonic figure stands. The Devil (διάβολος “accuser” or “slanderer”) is perceived as the chief of the fallen angels in the world’s monotheistic religions. In Zoroastrianism he is called ‘ Druj ‘ (the ‘Lie’) who is in endless conflict with ‘Asha,’ that is ‘Truth’ and ‘Right’. In both Judaism and Christianity, he is known as ‘Satan’. He is mentioned very rarely in the early OT literature. The serpent in Genesis, chapter 3, is considered as the representation of the devil. He appears in the Book of Wisdom (2.24), Samuel (18.10), I Kings (22.21-3), and in the first two chapters of the Book of Job. In the post-OT and NT text, he became an adversary of God, known as ‘Beelzebul’ (Matt. 12:24-27). In Islam, the Devil is known as ‘Iblis’, ‘ash-Shaytan’ or ‘aduw Allah’, who is cursed by Allah for not bowing before Adam; the proto-human. In the dualistic belief system of Gnosticism, as well as other syncretistic religions, the demonic figure is called ‘ Demiurge,’ the creator of the universe; and in Manichaeanism: the Prince of Darkness. In Buddhist mythology, he is ‘Mara’ the Evil One, who is the enemy of all those who strive toward ‘Nirvana’. That is to say, the state of bliss by the enlightened and liberated being after death.
The Personal and Collective Shadow.
The umbilical connection, the cord fastened around the necks, of the two half animal figures. Moreover, anchored to the base supporting the Devil, is representative of man’s primitive past, the potential for unleashing colossal death and destruction so particularly evident in civilized human society. These two-tailed figures are the Devil’s ‘enablers’. They either consciously or unconsciously provide the wherewithal to facilitate the Devil’s bidding. This shadowy archetype typifies not only the collective potential for evil but also the latent dark forces within the individual cesspool of intolerance, xenophobia and greed. Nazi Germany’s unleashing of the systematic demonic forces of death and destruction upon the Jewish people is representative of the evil potential of the entire world community; as well as the individual.
Outward Projection of The Shadow.
Individually and collectively we ascribe our own shadows to others, like the two ‘enablers’, without facing or acknowledging the demon within ourselves, nor rationalizing our ethical or moral responsibilities. This concept is quite apparent at the heart of the following NT text: “… how can you say to your brother, ‘Bother, let me remove the speck that is in your eye,’ when you yourself do not see the plank that is in your own eye? Hypocrite! First remove the plank from your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck that is in your brother’s eye” (Luke 6:42. KJV).
Theme of The Devil in Literature.
The following OT prose narrative presents the ‘Adversary’, as he was then known, in early Judaism (400BC); in the throne-room of Yahweh. The ‘Satan’ of later OT and NT is not evident. He is one of Yahweh’s courtiers. At his worst, he is cynical and unpleasant. Unlike Yahweh, he has not the optimistic confidence in mankind.
And the Lord said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil? Then Satan answered the Lord, and said, Doth Job fear God for naught? Hast not thou made an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his face hands, and his substance is increased in the land. But put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will curse thee to thy face. And the Lord said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon him-self put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord.
Job, 1: 8-12. (KJV).
The Devil is seen by Kipling as a contrary, noisy, and inartistic figure.
We know that the tail must wag the dog, for the horse is drawn by the cart; But the Devil whoops, as he whooped of old: ‘It’s clever, but is it Art?’
‘The Conundrum of the Workshops’.
Dostoevsky suggests that the ‘devil’ may be the anthropomorphizing of man’s self perceptions.
If the devil doesn’t exist, but man has created him, he has created him in his own image and likeness.
Fedor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov. bk.5,ch.4. op.cit . p.254:4.
The ‘serpent’ in Genesis – a borrowing from the Canaanite fertility rites – is employed by Milton to indicate fiendish, treacherous, and vindictive character of the ‘serpent’ who deceives the proto-mother of the human race.
The infernal serpent; he it was, whose guile Stirred up with envy and revenge, deceived The mother of mankind.
John Milton, Paradise Lost, bk. 1, 1.34. op.cit . p.467:22.
The Devil, in the following Marcan account, of the two temptations in the ‘wilderness’, describes Jesus’ internal dialectical battle with the Devil. The Devil first tempts Jesus to prioritize the physical needs at the expense of the spiritual. Secondly, he tempts Jesus to take political power by leading the liberationists (Zealots et alii.) in overthrowing the Roman occupation of Palestine.
And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered. And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread. And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God. And the Devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
Luke, 4: 1-8. ( KJV ).
- Black, M. Rowley,H.H. (editors). Peake’s Commentary of the Bible , Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd. Ontario. 1962.
- Brown, C. (ed.). The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, The Paternoster Press, Exter, Devon, UK 1975.
- Brown, R.E.(ed.) et al. The Jerome Biblical Commentary, Geoffrey Chapman Ltd, London. 1968.
- Buttrick, G.A. The Interpreter’s Dictionary of The Bible (vol.i), Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tennessee, US. 1962.
- Man Myth and Magic. Purnell Publishers, UK sine anno.
- dGe-‘dun Chos-‘phel. (transl.). Dhammapada, Dharma Press, Oakland, California, US. 1985.
- Compton, M. Archetypes on The Tree of Life – The Tarot as Pathwork, LLewellyn Publications, Minnesota, US. 1991.
- Hunter, A. M. The Work and Words of Jesus, (rev.ed.), SGM Press Ltd, London. 1973.
- Jung, C.G. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, (vol. ix), Routledge and Kegan Paul, Ltd, London. 1959.
- Macquarrie, J. (ed.). A Dictionary of Christian Ethics, SCM Press Ltd, London. 1967.
- Mann, M. (ed.). Macmillan Student Encyclopaedia of Sociology. The Macmillian Press Ltd, London and Basingstoke, UK. 1983.
- Newman, D.N. The Tarot a Myth of Male Initiation, C.G.Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology, New York, US. 1983.
- Nichols, S. Jung and Tarot, An Archetypal Journey, Samuel Weiser, Inc. Maine, US. 1980.
- Parringer, G. Dictionary of Non-Christian Religions, Hulton Educational Publications Ltd, Amersham, Bucks, UK 1971.
- Shah, S.I. The Secret Lore of Magic – Books of the Sorcerers, Frederick Muller Limited, London. 1957.
- Reber, A. S. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, Penguin Group, London, UK. 1985.
The quotation from the Dhammapada, is by courtesy of the Copyright © 1985 owner, Dharma Publishing, Oakland, California.
~ Finis ~
The Trade Union Movement.
Rev Father A. Maximiadis
The Trade Union Movement has, since the late 18th and early 19th centuries brought many benefits to the proletariat. Some of which include: raising the living standards, just wages and working conditions, pensions, unemployment compensation, safety regulations, vacations, education, maternity leave, grievance procedures; and the list goes on. These benefits that have helped the workers to gain economic control in their lives were not achieved without fierce opposition from employers and governments.
These benefits which the unions fought for are systematically being whittled away. Resulted from the decline of people employed in manufacturing occupations, and an increase in people employed in service occupations. Furthermore, exacerbated by the introduction of microelectronics into the industries, the influence of many new business corporations, and economic rationalism. These have changed the socio-economic environment that has adversely effected the power of the unions, in labour negotiations, for their members and others.
In this new environment, the unions’ powers to engage, on behalf of the proletariat, in collective agreements, has been radically diminished. The wage-earners, particularly those not fully au fait in matters relating to negotiations, industrial engineering, grievances, legal services, arbitration, economics et cetera; are now at the mercy of private enterprise bargaining. In this new economic setting, there must be a social and collective bargaining component to protect the rights of the workers. The majority of employers base their decisions solely on profit-driven interests, absent of ethical considerations towards the wage-earners and their families. The disablement of trade unions, particularly in a highly industrialized society, to represent the wage-earners, in collective bargaining, is ruthlessly exploitative, and tantamount to authoritarianism.
These views may not be consistent with those of the unions. Therefore, it is suggested you visit union websites in your area to obtain more accurate, and up-to-date information from the unions themselves.
~ Finis ~
Brain Damage Associated with Alcohol Abuse
~ PREAMBLE ~
This pamphlet is a synopsis of the topic: ‘Brain damage associated with alcohol abuse,’ from several perspectives. Firstly, a definition of alcohol, its potency; factors involved in ingestion and absorption. Secondly, an outline emphasising the anatomical and physiological components of the brain. The brain’s orientations and ensuing direct and indirect effects on the afferent neurones (that transmit impulses to the central nervous system (CNS)), and efferent fibres, e.g., the effectors of the muscle or glands. Concluding with a soupçon of information about behavioural effects, organ systems, anterograde amnesia, three consecutive phases in physical dependence syndrome; and Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome.
Alcohol is known as ‘ethyl alcohol’ and ‘ethanol’. The word ‘ethanol’, rather than ‘alcohol’, is employed in this pamphlet, to conform with its approval by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Ethanol is developed by either fermentation or distillation from agricultural products and comprises of Hydroxyl (OH) type organic compounds connected to a single carbon atom, viz., three hydrogen atoms adjoining a single carbon atom (CH 3 OH). The potency of ethanol beverages are variable. The Alcohol Drug Foundation (Victoria) report that ‘beer has an approximate ethanol content range between 2-5% x volume of 425 and 285 ml respectively, wine approximates between 10-20% x volume of 120 and 60 ml, and distilled spirits; 40% x volume of 30 ml’. 1.
Ethanol is usually ingested orally and is absorbed into the body from both the upper and lower aspects of the alimentary canal at absorption levels of approximately 75% and 25% respectively. 2. Its rate of absorption is greater in the small intestine than the stomach. 3. Following ingestion, the blood ethanol (alcohol) level (BAL) may peak within 30 to 60 minutes. 4. The level of ethanol, and the determining factors in absorption are based on: the percentage level of ethanol per drink, the condition of the stomach, the variable time factors of absorption, and the rate of metabolism determined by liver mass, tolerance and genetic factors.
The absorption rate is less at the low level of the ethanol percentage range, whereas it is more at the high level. 5. A high level of ethanol in a void stomach may cause pylorospasms, viz., convulsions of the pyloric sphincter, that will obstruct the path into the small intestine; thus retarding the absorption rate. The rate is also determined by either presence or absence of food stuffs (solids/liquids) in the upper aspects of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. 6.
Presence of food stuffs, particularly some fatty substances, slow down the rate of ethanol absorption, whereas its absence – or ethanol combined with carbonated fluids – may accelerate absorption by approximately 20% per dose. 7. Inflamed peptic ulcers may either inhibit or stimulate absorption. The rate of absorption is affected also by temperature. At environmental temperature, it is absorbed rather rapidly, whereas chilled, it absorbs slowly. 8.
Ethanol Molecule Infant’s Blood Brain Barrier (BBB).
The ethanol molecule (CH 3 CH 2 OH) is water and fat soluble and therefore absorb quite readily into all tissue including the brain. It also passes over the placenta – a structure that exchanges oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and wastes between the foetal and maternal circulation – to an infant’s BBB. Pregnant women consuming several drinks per day expose their unborn infants to foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Foetal alcohol syndrome includes: anomalous cardiac function, arrested intellectual development, head and facial disfigurement. And abnormalities to the cartilaginous, fibrous and synovial joints, as well as the extremities (vide: Cox C. et al. ‘Drugs and Drug Abuse’, Addiction Research Foundation, 2nd ed, p. 283). The scientific community has not established safe levels of ethanol intake for pregnant women.
Inspiration and Excretion.
Vaporized, ethanol can be absorbed by inspiration (inhalation of air into the lungs) into the blood stream, and small quantities can be excreted by expiration (exhalation of air from the lungs). The interchange of oxygen (O 2 > CO 2) from the left ventricle, and carbon dioxide (CO 2> O2) from the right ventricle of the pulmonary blood supply, ocurrs – during inhalation – between the capillary network and the alveoli; and during exhalation the carbon dioxide is removed from the lungs. Ethanol retards the rate of incoming atmospheric air and the interchange process between the alveoli and the pulmonary blood capillaries. Excretion, from the body via the kidney and urinary system, occurs following metabolic activity of the liver, viz., detoxification or catabolism.
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis
The Fundamentalist movement was formed as the ‘World’s Christian Fundamentals Association’ shortly after the Great World War (1914-18). In the following decade, it created denominational conflict across the United States through its vigorous militant campaigns. This had the effect of dividing the Protestant Churches into two distinct groups, viz: the Fundamentalists and Modernists.
Rejection of Historical Factors.
Through this division arose a retrogression by Fundamentalists, and political Right activists, from the liberal theology of the Modernists to oversimplistic, arbitrary interpretation of the Bible. The Fundamentalists preclude the Bible from literal, allegorical scenarios of ‘Truth’, and the ancient socio-religious institutions of Palestine. They also exclude the Yahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomic and Priestly Traditions, and the effects of the Pax Romana (27BC-180AD) upon the Mediterranean world. Moreover, the inseparableness of the Sacred Scripture and Tradition of the ancient Church which nurtured, canonized; and with Apostolic authority, interpreted the Scriptures.
Constantinople and Rome.
The Fundamentalists reject the continual spiritual authority of the traditional Church, from the Apostles through the historically demonstrable Apostolic Succession of the 267 (q.v.) Patriarchs in the East (Constantinople 38AD – ) and the 302 (q.v.) Popes in the West (Rome 64AD – ) They engage in intrusively aggressive proselytizing activities in the traditional, long-established ecclesiastical jurisdictions. Stressing a literal and individualized interpretation – based on the principle of private judgement – of the Bible verging on bibliolatry and rejection of the Apostolic teachings, and the traditional sacred Liturgies.
They openly engaged in right-wing politics, v.g., they support vigorous anti-socialist foreign policy, free-enterprise capitalism and ideological fanaticism. They supported Ronald Reagan’s presidential bids in 1980 and 1984, endorsed huge United States’ military defense budgets, and support Neo-imperialism to boot. The influential Fundamentalist right-wing activist organization ‘Moral Majority’, was founded in 1980 by the high profile Reverend Jerry Falwell. The Moral Majority influences political Right outcomes through its massive fundraising activities among its Fundamentalist satellites.
Fundamentalists are insular, intolerant, overzealous, sternly judgmental, and unfriendly to the spirit of pluralism. They demand compliance of its membership, to tithing and authoritarian control over freedom of thought and sometimes over life and death itself. For example the mass suicide of 913 (q.v.) people at the behest of 47-year-old Reverend James Warren (or ‘Jim’) Jones at Guyana South America (1978). Also, the death of 80 (q.v.) in 1993, at the side shoot cult of the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) near Waco Texas. led by 34-year-old ‘David Koresh’; born Vernon Howell.
Denial of Darwinian Theory.
Fundamentalists are anti-scientific, e.g., they reject the Darwinian theory of evolution – T. Scopes, a Tennessee school teacher, was convicted for teaching Darwinian theory (1925) – whilst favouring scientific technologies (viz., television and radio) that serve their fundraising and proselytizing activities.
Both Christian Fundamentalists, and Islamic militant Fundamentalists (Shī‘ites) are interconnected, not by doctrinal parallels, but by superfluous patriotic attitudes. Islamic theocracies perceive Western secular pluralism is impacting upon their economy, energy resources, religious and traditional family life. This appears to have been the thesis of suspected terrorist Osama bin Laden’s speech:
“They rip us of our wealth and of our resources and of our oil. Our religion is under attack. They kill and murder our brothers. They compromise our honour and our dignity and dare we utter a single word of protest against the injustice, we are called terrorists”.
(‘Frontline’, May 1998)
Both Christian and Islamic Fundamentalists promote a peremptory stance in international relations. The division of mankind by feigned obstacles, excessive sentiments of patriotism, or exploitation by economic self-centredness is iniquitous. An ethos of intolerance towards differing religio-politico-economic ideologies is not conducive to international peace, autonomy, and justice.
‘Fundamentalism’ is an unrestricted and usurped authority without involving analysis of deeper layers of literary, textual and historical factors. Unguarded – or blind – acceptance of any religious or philosophical beliefs is tantamount to excluding the faculty of reasoning of rational thought. Intellectual inertness or the absence of covert metaphysical cognition, without which, first principles cannot be sought beyond tangible and mechanical analyses, is a ludicrous path of spiritlessness to nowhere.
Fundamentalists need to think beyond their own confines and acknowledge that Christian love is unprejudiced towards the antagonist, strange, and objectionable. Any infraction of this love contravene Jesus’ injunction:
“ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς.”
“But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you.”
~ Finis ~
His Eminence Àrchbishop Spyridon (Prós tón Sevasmótaton Árhiepískopon Spyrídon ó Ámerikés kaí Aústralías), is now retired. He was consecrated by Árhiepískopos Gregóriou and Árhiepískopos Gennádiou, Saint Mary’s Cathedral, Chicago, Illinois USA; 23 February 1969 [‘National Greek Tribune’, Èthnikón Vïma, Pémbti 27 Fevrooários 1969, Selís 1, kaí 2a]. His Eminence was the writer’s ordaining Bishop under whose Episcopal direction, and blessings; the spiritual and secular works were performed.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born 5 September 1888 at Tiruttani, India, and died at Madras on the 16 April 1975. He held three professorial chairs including Mysore, Calcutta, and Oxford universities, from 1921-31, 1937-41, 1936 – 52 respectively. He served as chairman of UNESCO’s executive board from 1948 to 1949. And between 1949 and 1952 served as ambassador to the former Soviet Union. He was President of India from 1962 to 1967. He was the author of Indian Philosophy, 2 vol. (1923-27), The Philosophy of the Upanishads (1924), An Idealist View of Life (1932), Eastern Religions and Western Thought (1939). And East and West: Some Reflections (1955).
The Good Samaritan.
‘The Good Samaritan’ is one of Jesus’ narrative parables unique to Luke (10, 29-37) [see below]. A legalist puts the question to Jesus: “And who is my neighbour?” Jesus responds by juxtaposing the representatives of Judaic law (the priest and Levite) with the Samaritan. The representatives of the law ignore helping their compatriot because of the requirements of the Levitical codes (11-15). Whereas, the Samaritan responded to the needs of the wounded Jew; notwithstanding the traditional enmities between the Jews and Samaritans.
But he, wanting to justify himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbour?” Then Jesus answered and said: “A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his clothing, wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead. “Now by chance a certain priest came down that road. And when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. “Likewise a Levite, when he arrived at the place, came and looked, and passed by on the other side. “But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. And when he saw him, he had compassion on him, “and went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine; and he set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. “On the next day, when departed, he took out two denarii, gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, ‘Take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I come again, I will repay you.’ “So which of these three do you think was the neighbour to him who fell among the thieves?” And he said, “He who showed mercy on him.” Then Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”
Luke 10, 29-37.
Katherine Dunham received the Chevalier, Haitian Legion of Honour and Merit (1952), and in 1965 was appointed, by the United States Government, the cultural advisor to the President of Senegal. The United States Postal Service issued a Black Heritage Commemorative Stamp, in her honour in 1978. In 1979, she was awarded the annual ‘Albert Schweitzer Music Award’, for her works in music and humanity.
In 1986, Dunham received the Southern Cross Award of Honour and Merit from the Government of Brazil and was the recipient of the Kennedy Centre Honours Award in 1983. She received The Medal of Artistic Merit, in Dance, from UNESCO in 1986, and in the same year received the Distinguished Service Award from the American Anthropological Association.
Dunham was made Grand Officer, Haitian Legion of Honour and Merit, and received an Honoree from the United States President’s Council on Youth Opportunity; in 1968. She received the Grand Cross Legion d’Honneur et Merite, from the Embassy of Haiti; in 1983. And five years later (1988) made Officer, of the Legion d’Honneur, Order of Arts and Letters, from the Government of France.
In 1988, she was made Officier de L’ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Le Ministre de la Culture et la Communication, Haiti. Two years later (1990), was the recipient of the Caribbean Award, Trinidad and Tobago. And received the United States President’s National Medal of the Arts; in 1992.
Katherine Dunham has also received numerous Honorary Doctorates, which include: Honorary Doctorates of Humane Letters from MacMurray College, Jacksonville Ill., (1972). Fine Arts, Tufts University, Medford, Mass., (1987), Chicago State University, Ill., (1993), Spelman College, Atlanta, Ga., (1990). Doctor of Fine Arts from Westfield State College, Westfield, Mass., (1979), Brown University, Providence, R.I., (1979), Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., (1979). Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., (1981), Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, (1983). Doctorates of Fine Arts: Howard University, Washington, D.C., (1984), Buffalo State College, Buffalo, N.Y., (1987). And University of Southern California, Los Angeles, (1995). Doctor of Literature: Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga., (1977). And Doctor of Laws from the Lincoln University, Lincoln, Pa., (1984).
The Oedipus complex is the tripartite theory, of a universal phenomenon, developed by Freud suggesting emergence of the unconscious (not to be confused with the ‘subconscious’) feelings and thoughts, during the three psychosexual phases. These stages include the oral, anal, and phallic developments during the first five years of human life. The libidinal focus is on the parent of the opposite sex, and the same gender parent is perceived, perhaps with hostility; as a rival. With male children, this syndrome is called ‘Oedipus complex’, and female children ‘Electra complex’. The Oedipal syndrome is based, by Freud, upon the legendary King in Sophocles’ great dramatic masterpiece: ‘Oidipous the King’. The apparent universality of the ‘Oedipus complex’ is evident in Iocasta’s dialogue with Oedipus:
Tí th’ än fovît ãnthropos, õ tà tís tíhis krata, prónia th’ éstìn oodinòs safís; ikë krátiston zín, öpos thínaitó tis, sì th’ is tà mìtròs mí fóvoo nimfévmata polloì yàr idi kàn òneírasin vrotón mitrì zinevnásthesan. állà tafth ótó par oothén ésti, râsta tòn víon féri.
[The above is only an approximation, of the original Greek text, in Sir Richard Jebb’s book: ‘The Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles’, The Syndics of The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1958. p. 106. ll. 977-83. – Mistakes in transliteration – Greek to English Alphabet – are mine [Fr.M]].
“And as for this marriage with your mother – have no fear. Many a man before you, in his dreams, has shared his mother’s bed”.
[ Robert Fagles (transl.), Sophocles The Three Theban Plays,
Penguin Books, New York U.S.A. 1982. p. 215, ll.1073-75 ].
The term ‘Oedipus complex’ is now preferred to describe this syndrome for both genders.
Oklahoma (U.S.) Bombing 19 April 1995.
Two former U.S. Army soldiers carried out a terrorist attack (using a massive homemade explosive device) on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in the United States. They carried out this attack six years prior to the terrorist attack on Manhattan New York, 11 September 2001. This attack caused the loss of 168 lives including nineteen children and eight federal law enforcement officers. Those Charged were Timothy McVeigh, who was convicted, on 11 counts of ‘murder’, ‘conspiracy’, and ‘using a weapon of mass destruction’ (2 June 1997). And Terry Nichols, convicted, of ‘conspiracy’ and eight counts of ‘involuntary manslaughter’ (9 August 2004). McVeigh was executed on 11 June 2001, and Nichols was sentenced to life in prison.
World War 1 (1914–18).
World War I, also called the Great War, involved the majority of the nations of Central Europe. Including south-central Europe, north-central Europe, west-northern Europe, Western Europe, East Asia, East Europe and North Asia, the Western Hemisphere, and the Middle East. Namely Hungary, Austria, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom (U.K.), France, Japan, Russia, the U.S., and Turkey; respectively. The Central Powers, for the most part, included: Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Turkey, who were in hostile engagement with the Allies. Namely, France, U.K., Russia, Italy, Japan, and from 1917, the U.S.
Anthrax (a malignant pustule) is a disease caused by the bacterium ‘Bacillus anthracis’. This disease effects humans in two ways either through the subcutaneous tissue. Or the inhalation, of the spores of the bacterium, into the pulmonary system. And if not treated early [perhaps with ‘Penicillin G’, or ‘Tetracycline’], it could be fatal. Anthrax can also affect animals (e.g., horses, pigs, sheep, goats, etc.). Anthrax was developed as a biological weapon by the U.S., U.K., and Canada (1941), following the weapon programmes developed by the Japanese military particularly during World War II.
Botulism (‘Clostridium botulinum’) is a pathogenic bacterium that produces an endotoxin in the digestive tract. This toxin has, on rare occasions, be known to enter the body through wounds. Two-thirds q.l., of cases, are fatal.
~ Finis ~
A Critique of Chris Butler’s Theories of Homosexuality.
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis
I respond to some assertions you made, e.g., “Homosexuals … sex even with pigs and dogs … without any hang ups”, (sic.) and published in your booklet ‘Homosexuality: Identity Crisis’ (s.l.et a).
Prior to commencing, I should like to make it quite clear, that the opinions I’ll be expressing in this letter are not to be regarded as being representative of any views, teachings, dogmas, or beliefs of any particular Christian church. And not to be interpreted as a campaign for homosexualism, lesbianism, or identity politics. These opinions are to be regarded as my personal views; nothing more and nothing less.
Furthermore, my opinions are not to be construed as any criticism of the core beliefs (e.g. metempsychosis’) of the multifarious traditions and philosophies generally known as Hinduism, or to be precise Sanâtana Dharma (q.v.). They are mentioned here solely to facilitate my criticisms of your erroneous teachings that have the effect of vilifying homosexuals et al.
The principal assertions that you made, in your booklet, are, in part, as follows:
“Hormones, chromosomes and the entire physical make-up of people are determined … at the time of death … the type of body they will take on in their next live” (sic.) [I assume that you mean ‘lives’]. “In the case of homosexuals, such individuals in their previous lives were somehow or other attached to the male form. And at the time of death, they were thinking of the male form. Thus, they got male bodies in this life … That is why sometimes it seems like these people are freaks of nature”.
And you further assert that they’ll have:
“…sex even with pigs and dogs … without any hang-ups … [and] should appreciate the fact that they are not women trapped in men’s bodies … [and] such desires are apart from himself … he can try to rid his mind of them … or he can give in to them. The choice is his.”
And, to support your assertions, you quote the antiquated “urning theory”. You also assert that:
“The soul transmigrates from a baby body to a boyhood body, and then migrates into a young man’s body … a middle-aged body” [and then into] “the body of an old man”.
You insert a few generalized borrowings from human biology in an attempt to legitimize your vague assumptions:
“All the cells have changed, the bones have changed, the whole body is different. This is a scientific fact “.
And in conclusion, you assert that:
“Religious leaders are teaching religiosity rather than real religion [and] are simply misleading people [and] are not teaching the truth”. (sic.) op. cit.
Your assertions outlined above, are based solely upon your personal opinions, rather than verifiable facts, and laced with a soupçon of scientific terminology, viz., “hormones, chromosomes”, and put forth under the veneer of “scientific fact (s)”. One could very well consider it Machiavellian, if it were not for the ingenuousness of style.
This response is put forward for your perusal and reply, for which I’m quite accustomed to expect no acknowledgment, as has been the situation, on several occasions; for the past seven years. But more particularly for both your followers and readership, to evaluate, whether or not, the above assertions are indeed”scientific fact (s)”. However, first and foremost, for them to consider the spiritual and intellectual integrity of their leader, to whom they have entrusted their souls.
Chris Butler (‘Jagad Guru) ): Incognizant of His own Teachings.
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis
I sent you a registered letter on the 7 November 2000, regarding comments you made in your booklet, ‘Understanding Karma’ (1995). In your booklet you took an unscrupulous, and excessive critical stance towards Christians, by imposing generic philosophical questions, assuming simplistic, unauthenticated replies, and misused Christian Scripture, for which I have not, in the ensuing four and a half year period, received a reply or even a courtesy response of you having received same.
In the concluding paragraph, you might recall, my invitation for you to refute my arguments, and indicated that in the event of me not receiving a reply, it would be safe for me to assume that you are incognizant of your own subject matters, and lack the intellectual stamina to support any, or all, of your propositions, as outlined in your booklet (loc. cit.), and that all my arguments, in my letter; disclosing the fallaciousness of your propositions are correct.
Your failure to respond to both registered mail, and the ‘Open Letters’ section of this web site, might suggest that on this occasion, you might prefer accepting my invitation, on behalf of our visitors, to rebut my arguments; on the open Forum page on this web site.
Your four and a half year aversion to reply to my letter, suggest that you are not asau fait with your own teachings, as one would expect of one with an assumed epithet “Jagad Guru” (“teacher of the whole world”), and subsequently, unable to respond to equitable comments, as outlined in my letter vs., of your expressed views, or you have concluded that the sum total of my theses, on these subject matters are, ipso facto, irrefutable.
If you decline this third invitation, visitors, and I myself, can be assured that:
- You acknowledge your inadequateness in supporting any, or all, of your propositions.
- You concede that all my arguments have incontestably demonstrated the fallaciousness of all your propositions.
- You’ll concede, particularly to your own devotees, that you haven’t the intellectual aptitude, of a soi-disant “Jagad Guru” (‘teacher of the whole world’), to argue, for your very own teachings.
Rev. Father A. Maximiadis.
Thursday 8 September, 2005.